Saturday, May 23, 2020

Dr. Martin Luther Kings Best Piece Of Literature - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 824 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/05/23 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Letter From Birmingham Jail Essay Did you like this example? Dr. Martin Luther King once said on a speech, I refuse to accept the view that mankind is so tragically bound to the starless midnight of racism and war that the bright daybreak of peace and brotherhood can never become a realityI believe that unarmed truth and unconditional love will have the final word. Love can solve everything has always been Dr. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Dr. Martin Luther Kings Best Piece Of Literature" essay for you Create order Martin Luther Kings belief. He believed that everyone is equal. He wanted to take a stand against the racial injustice that was happening in Birmingham and everywhere else in the nation. He would not stop fighting no matter what happened, even if he had to retaliate blows from the police. His way of protesting for justice was respectful but yet motivating, he also managed to make a huge impact in the way the Americans think of colored people without any violence. He was then criticized for his actions by the Clergymen, he then wrote the Letter from Birmingham Jail in response of their remarks. Throughout his article, Dr. Martin Luther King attempts to persuade his audience via biblical illusions, rhetorical questions and pathos; however, Kingrs sarcastic tone, yet respectful, make his credibility convincing to his audience because he wrote such an inspirational piece of literature. Biblical illusion is a huge part of his letter, it showed his audience that Dr. King is an intellectual person and he knows how to prove his point with biblical facts to make sure that the clergymen and the public understand the purpose of his movement. Throughout the letter, King admits that he felt his goal in life was to carry the gospel of freedom beyond his hometown. In his letter Dr. Martin Luther King quoted, Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and?carried their thus saith the Lord far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just?as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far?corners of the Greco Roman world, so I am compelled to carry the gospel of freedom?beyond my own home town( King n. Pag.).Dr. King explains to his audience that he felt he was brought to this Earth to carry the gospel of freedom and free his brothers and sisters from racism. He strongly believed that one day in the future, everyone would get along with each other peacefully. Dr. King also used rhetorical questions throughout his letter to make the reader stop and think about the racism crisis. Most importantly he starts questioning his audience about the different laws that exist. Dr. King states that he agrees with St. Augustine that an unjust law is no law at all. He then starts asking the public how can we differentiate between an unjust law and a just law. In Letter from Birmingham Dr. King asks his audience, Now what is the difference between the two? How does one determine whether a law is just and unjust law?(King n.pag.). After his rhetorical questions he goes more into detail explaining the difference between the two laws. His main point was that a just law is a moral law given by God and an unjust law is a law that is out of harmony with the moral law. Throughout the passage, King uses pathos to make an emotional appeal to his audience. Kings arguments play further into the conscious of his audience to make his point. One powerful example of Kings pull on his audience consciousness is when he has to explain his children about racism: when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six year old daughter why she cant go to the public amusement park that has just advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children, and see ominous clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for five year old son who is asking: Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean? He was demonstrating his audience how hard it would be explaining the meaning of racism to children. Especially explaining them that they would always be treated differently because of the color of their skin. In Conclusion Dr. Martin Luther King persuades his letter through biblical illusions, rhetorical questions and pathos to make his letter more persuasive. All throughout his letter he establishes himself a legitimate authority to his audience. He also gives great examples to justify his actions in the civil rights movement. He answers all the criticism he was getting from the clergymen and from the public in the Letter from Birmingham. He effectively demonstrates the injustice that was occurring in our country. Dr. Martin Luther King indeed made the best piece of literature in our entire history.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Social Responsibility For The Welfare Of Society Essay

Cooke and Mendelson define social responsibility as, ‘the concern for the welfare of society which restrains business from engaging in destructive activities, whatever their immediate profitability and focuses their contributions on the betterment of society’ . Intrinsically, corporate social responsibility (â€Å"CSR†) as Yamusa postulates, involves not just charitable gestures by a company but also the application of internationally recognised best practices of business standards in its operations taking into consideration the dilemma of host communities and government and ensuring that issues of human rights, human capital development and the environment are incorporated into the company s policies and decision-making .Thus, CSR is an issue that borders on economic, legal, ethical, and unrestricted expectations that society has of organizations at a given point in time. It requires organizations to adopt a broader view of its responsibilities that includes not only stockholders, but many other participants as well, including employees, the local community, local, state, and federal governments, environmental groups, and other special interest groups. Corporate codes of conduct, community development projects and voluntary social reporting are key tools of CSR employed by multi-national corporations(MNCs); while the areas covered by their CSR initiatives include; human rights, transparency issues, employees welfare, environmental issues, disclosure of information, andShow MoreRelated Social Welfare Past and Present Essay1325 Words   |  6 PagesSocial Welfare Past and Present Social welfare is an expansive system proposed to maintain the well being of individuals within a society. This paper will explain the progression from the feudal system and church provisions for the poor before the Elizabethan Poor Law to the gradual assumption of the responsibility for the poor by the government. A responsibility assumed not out of humanity and concern for the poor, but as a process of standardizing the ways in which the poor were to be managedRead MoreArguments for and Against Corporate Social Responsibility1004 Words   |  5 PagesWhat is corporate social responsibility? Give arguments for and against social responsibility? Ans. Social Responsibility Social responsibility can be defined as: â€Å"A business’s obligation to follow goals that are good for both organization and society in the long-term, and are not required by law.† Corporate Social Responsibility The term corporate social responsibility came in to common use in the early 1970s. It means the duty of an organization towards society in order to prove itselfRead MoreAn Air Of Controversy Regarding Laws Promoting Personal And Social Responsibility And Individual Freedom1190 Words   |  5 Pagespersonal and social responsibility and individual freedom. After all, there is a dire need for social change in a society that is becoming ever more self-centered and materialistic. This social change might come from laws that encourage some sort of responsibility. For example, in Texas, a future policy for social responsibility could be a ban on texting and driving. Personal responsibility policies could be limits on welfare benefits and childhood immunization requirements. While a welfare reform wouldRead MoreWelfare to Work Programs Essays932 Words   |  4 PagesSocieties for years have preached the theory of individual responsibility as the righteous route for it citizens to pursuit . The worth of a society is often based on the monetary network of individuals. Moreover, in the United States this is the norm to focus on individual responsibility. However, every society is faced with the conflict of poverty that requires some type of social welfare policy. Poverty is not a stranger to the United States and therefore it created program such as welfareRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibilities1373 Words   |  6 PagesCORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY The term social responsibility means different things to different people. Generally, corporate social responsibility is the obligation to take action that protects and improves the welfare of society as whole as well as organizational interests. According to the concept of corporate social responsibility, a manager must strive to achieve both organizational and societal goals. Current perspectives regarding the fundamentals of social responsibility of businessesRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility : A Company s Sense Of Responsibility1366 Words   |  6 PagesCorporate Social Responsibility Corporate Social Responsibility refers to a company’s sense of responsibility towards the community and environment, in both ecological and social aspects, in which it operates. It may also termed as corporate citizenship and can involve incurring short-term costs that do not provide an immediate financial benefit to the company, but instead of this it promotes positive social and environmental change. According to Cheng (2014) many top executives as well asRead MoreThe Role of the Concept of Need and Inequality Social Policy1527 Words   |  7 PagesFrom the inauguration of state organised welfare the concepts of ‘need’ and inequality have been at the centre of discussions and debates on social policy. Since the 19th century it has widely been accepted that the state has some responsibility towards attempting to fulfil some of civil society’s needs and the needs of those most at risk. Changing definitions and attitudes surround the concepts of need and inequality; this means any discussion of these instantly encapsulates the political and ideologicalRead MoreOverview of Social Responsibility713 Words   |  3 PagesSocial Responsibility Social Responsibility Social concern and responsibility refers to a principle of moral theory that states that any entity has a duty to carry out its action in order to profit community as a whole. It is considered as the obligation of every group or stand-alone individual and has to be done in order to continue with the established equilibrium between the ecological and financial systems. This always results in an opportunity cost; there is a trade-off between contributingRead MoreWelfare Fraud : A Black Woman1289 Words   |  6 Pageswith the help of the media, the label of the black mother who lives on welfare, yet is able to afford a Cadillac. Her name was Linda Taylor, a Chicagoan who was infamously known to changing her name numerous times, participating in welfare fraud, and ultimately living a well-off life based on her scams. The Chicago Tribune was the first to refer to Taylor as being a â€Å"welfare queen.† Media and politics stereotyped the â€Å"welfare queen† as a black wo man who takes advantages of taxpayers and the systemRead MoreThe Issue of Child Welfare999 Words   |  4 PagesThe issue of child welfare is typified in the society mainly because of freedom of choice to be given to the children. There are certain social problems which are discussed frequently in this context. The major problems include the rights of child and access to privileges. It is argued that child is an individual who has no lesser rights than any other individual and he must be given the liberty to enjoy these rights. He must be given food, shelter and clothing without his contribution in the economic

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Levels of Processing Theory by Fergus M Craik Essay

Memory can be defined as the mental system for receiving, encoding, storing, organising, altering and retrieving information (Coon Mitterer, 2012). Many a time one is able to remember something, example how to drive a car, yet they are unable to remember a mathematical formula for an examination. People vary in their ability to remember certain things, and research conducted has proven that even infants differ in their memory abilities (Fagan Singer, 1963). It was discovered by psychologists that memory is not static, but rather it is influenced by ones internal factors and situational happenings to a large effect (Huffman, Vernoy Vernoy, 1997). This essay will attempt to discover which method of study is most suitable, by listing†¦show more content†¦Whereas deep processing comprises of the focus on the meaning of what is being noticed, as well as relating the item to something else (Goldstein, 2008). It is worth noting that although all levels of processing produces som e memory, Craik and Lockhart stated that the deeper the level reached, the stronger ones memory will be (Kretch., et al, 1982). This is because a deeper analysis of meaning enables one to remember information better, due to it being stored in the long term memory very efficiently (Huffman, Vernoy Vernoy, 1997). The linking of new information with existing memories as well as knowledge is known as elaborative encoding (Coon Mitterer, 2012). This is carried out through rehearsal. It is stated that the more something is rehearsed, the easier it is for it to be recognized (Hoeksema., et al, 2009). Through rehearsal, information is integrated with what one already knows, thus making it more memorable (Sternberg Sternberg, 2012). Elaboration is a vital part of studying effectively. This is the factor that enables material to be stored into long term memory (Goldstein, 2008). If new information is linked to information that was previously already stored in the long term memory, through elaboration, it becomes increasing easier for one to remember the new information (Coon Mitterer, 2008). Thus when one studies something that he is already familiar with heShow MoreRelatedThe Original General Model Of Memory Essay1529 Words   |  7 PagesThe original general model of memory was proposed by Rich ard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin in 1968. The Attkinson-Shiffrin theory of human memory states that human memory can be classified into three components: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory (Atkinson, Shiffrin, 1968). Sensory memory is where sensory information is brought into memory and maintained by the senses. For instance, when a person perceives an environmental stimulus for a short time before it fades, the objectRead MorePaths Of Bilingual Language Processing Through Phonological Activation1785 Words   |  8 PagesBilingual Language Processing Through Phonological Activation Jayshawn L. Anderson Case Western Reserve University Abstract The proposed study aims to show how bilingual individuals access their native language while reading, speaking, or listening in other language of than their native tongue—commonly referred to as the secondary language. It is unknown what type of whether bilinguals retrieve the spelling or sound of a word when processing language a theirRead MoreWho Are You Calling Old? Negotiating Old Age Identity in the Elderly Consumption Ensemble Michelle Barnhart Àà º Lisa Penaloza18943 Words   |  76 PagesCorvallis, OR 97331 (michelle.barnhart@bus.oregonstate.edu). Lisa Penaloza is professor of ËÅ" marketing, Bordeaux Management School, 680 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex, France (lisa.penaloza@bem.edu), and advisor, Center for Consumer Culture Theory (3CT), Stockholm University School of Business, Sweden. This research was part of the lead author’s PhD dissertation at the David Eccles School of Business at the University of Utah. The authors would like to than k the members of the lead author’s

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Health Care For Transgender Patients Essay - 1918 Words

Regarding access to healthcare, transgender individuals often face the most obstructive barriers when attempting to receive care. Whether they are seeking access to hormones, therapy, general health services, reproductive healthcare, or specialty healthcare, transgender patients typically cannot get what they need without jumping through many hoops or hiding their identities. This occurs especially so in cases of intersecting identities -- where an individual is not just transgender, but is transgender and a person of color, disabled, gay, indigenous, undocumented, poor, etc. These intersecting identities interact in multifaceted ways to produce even more barriers for trans individuals seeking healthcare due to healthcare provider bias, insurance requirements, and doctors’ general unwillingness to help coupled with inaccessibility founded on racism, transphobia, homophobia, mental illness stigmatization, etc. Perhaps the most significant contributing cause of the poor quality of healthcare afforded to transgender patients is the fact that the majority of healthcare providers do not know how to treat trans patients. According to a study done by the Royal College of Nursing, it was discovered that â€Å"78% [of surveyed nursing staff] had not had training on how to care for transgender people, and only 13% of those surveyed said they had felt prepared to meet the needs of trans patients they had cared for† (Duffy, 2016). Additionally, around four out of five staff had â€Å"no trainingShow MoreRelatedGender Transition : Male And Diverse Population Of Patients1168 Words   |  5 PagesGender Transition: Male-to-Female Transgender Patients Nurses serve a wide and diverse population of patients. Identifying and understanding the transgender population is an area of little research and training for nurses. While it is estimated that less than 1% of the population identifies themselves as transgender, it is a population comprising of all races, ethnicities, religions, ages, and socioeconomic backgrounds (American Journal of Nursing, 2014). Society has long discriminated and denigratedRead MoreGender Issues And Health Care Provider Knowledge / Communication997 Words   |  4 PagesGender Issues and Health Care Provider Knowledge/Communication Patient-Provider Communication is a Public Health Problem Public health is concerned with protecting and improving the health of entire populations, whether through education and promotion of healthy lifestyles, research for disease and injury prevention, detection and control of infectious diseases, or changes in public policy.1 The patient-provider encounter is an important point of access between the patient population and the healthcareRead MoreChanging Definitions That Restrict Who Can Visit Veterans1207 Words   |  5 Pagesdefinitions that restrict who can visit veterans in health care settings. This new definition will allow veterans to determine their own visitors (Sharpe Uchendu, 2014). The efforts set forth by the Veterans Administration create an opportunity for more inclusive health services for LGBT individuals outside of the VA. With the abolishment of Don’t Ask Don’t Tell Policies, LBGT veterans are now considered in the services offered at the VA. As the Veterans Health Administration becomes more inclusive, thereRead MoreEthical Theory Of Deontology And Teleology1701 Words   |  7 Pageswrong as it emphasises on consequences determining whether an action is good or bad (Johnstone, 2016). A number of literatures have highlighted that homophobic verbal and physical abuse, discrimination, stigmatisation leads to poor mental health amongst transgender individuals which in turn puts them at a higher risk of suicide (Hillier et al., 2010; Leonard, et al., 2012; Commonwealth of Australia, 2010). This shows that the negative consequences of Jo’s actions can be more severe thus making herRead MoreThe, Or Gender Dysphoria893 Words   |  4 Pageswhom is or is not, in fact, ‘transgender’. As aforementioned, the definition and criteria underwent decades of controversial revisions. Needless-to-say, the diagnosis of gender dysphoria is the primary criteria to be considered for any form of intervention. 8 The World Professional Association for ‘Trans-gender’ Healt h’s standards of care outlined various intervention options available. Psychotherapy, hormone replacement, surgical reassignment and other medical care can be utilized in promoting personalizedRead MoreThe Fathers Private Family Experience868 Words   |  4 Pagessaid yes. He continued to say that it was time for his testosterone shot and his yearly pap smear. I remember that I responded by blinking my eyes and then saying ok. I opened his chart and flipped back about a year’s worth of notes by the primary care physician (PCP) and saw female to male (FTM) hormone replacement therapy and the initial testosterone dosage John was started on. I then realized the awkward silence in the room as I looked through his chart, and apologized to John that I was lookingRead MorePaper1299 Words   |  6 PagesYouth: Making a Lifetime Impact Students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and other sexual and gender minorities (LGBTQ+) are at high risk for bullying, relationship violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI’s). They are often afraid to speak up for themselves because of prior or anticipated discrimination (Cornelius Whitaker-Brown, 2017). This paper reviews the literature related to risk factors and health care of LGBTQ+ youth, discusses some legal issues related to the topic,Read MoreGender Equality And Its Effects On Society1363 Words   |  6 PagesTaylor, Antony, 2010, p. 474). The term transgender has been used to represent individuals whose gender identity and/or gender expression do not match the biological gender they were born with (Stroumsa, 2014, p. 1). Individuals who choose to transition from their biological gender into their gender identity are faced with multiple barriers especially individuals who have transitioned into females. Being female anywhere is difficult, t herefore being a transgender female is especially difficult. ThereRead MorePresident Trump Is A Disaster For Transgender People1019 Words   |  5 Pages according to the article, â€Å"President Trump is a disaster for transgender people† written by Samantha Allen, given the fact that both Trump and his Vice President, Mike Pence, appear to favor the Religious Freedom Act, repealing Obama Care, and allowing HIV preventative inaction, I argue, and with great reason, that those who will be severely targeted and affected by their political and religious stances will be the entire transgender and transsexual community—a fear that I once assumed was a thingRead MoreCare For Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgenient Care In The Patient1313 Words   |  6 Pagesfor lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients has significantly increases since the AIDs epidemic that began in the mid-to-late 70s, it is still not where it needs to be. This is apparent from the fact that LG BT youth have a higher risk of attempting suicide, lesbians are at higher risk of developing cancers, especially breast cancer; and gay men and transgender individuals are at higher risk of HIV and other STDs (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health). As a member of the LGBT+ community

Trompenaars vs. Hofstede Free Essays

string(67) " certain number of members make decisions and take responsibility\." Trompenaars vs. Hofstede 1. 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Trompenaars vs. Hofstede or any similar topic only for you Order Now Introduction †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2 Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede and Trompenaars †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Analogies or identities of the cultural dimensions †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 5 Differences of the dimensions †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 Advantages and Risks seeing the world and cultures with dimensions â € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Effects on practice operation †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 8 Personal meaning and consequences of the dimensions †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 9 2. 1. 2. 2. Hofstedes’ Dimensions†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 Trompenaars’ Dimensions †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4 1. Introduction Nowadays a lot of companies operate in a multitude of distinct countries. However, if we do a double take, it is evident that multinational enterprises and their strategies differ from country to country. If not, it might be the case that those companies will fail. For example Wal-Mart opted for entering the Japanese market. Unfortunately, they tried implement the American strategy in Japan. Americans were keen on bargain buys in huge amounts 24 hours a day. Whereas the discount strategy in the USA has been very successful, it had adverse effects in Japan. Japanese people equated low prices to low quality and thus didn’t want to buy at Wal-Mart. Moreover, Japanese weren’t used to the fact that a store was open 24 hours per day. Such misunderstandings cause huge trouble. For some situations we cannot prepare. However, it would have been important for WalMart to analyze the Japanese culture in depth before starting business there. If we look at everyday life it is safe to say that all people have the problem how to cope with people’s relationship to time, nature and other human beings. The solutions how to get a grip on these problems differ from culture to culture. Consequently, it is important to be aware of the cultural differences of each country. Trompenaars and Hofstede give some propositions how to classify cultures. 2 2. Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede and Trompenaars 2. 1. Hofstedes’ Dimensions Geert Hofstede filtered out 5 dimensions which indicate how people are influenced by their culture especially in the workplace. The first dimension refers to identity. The dimension Collectivism vs. individualism reflects the relationship between an individual and the group. In more individualistic societies the emphasis is put on freedom, personal achievement and individual identity. Consequently, ties in a group (e. g. he family, workgroup) are loose. People manifest a higher incentive for self-initiative and try to take care of themselves. In contrast, collectivistic cultures place great value on the common interest of a group, harmony between members and taking care of each other. There is a clear distinction between inand outsiders. If an outsider takes face of one group member the entire group feels offended and avoids contact with the troublemaker. Secondly, Power Distance deals with hierarchy and the degree of inequality between members of a society which is adopted as a natural state of affairs. In high power distance countries inequality in physical and intellectual capabilities is considered to be normal. Subordinates are in for displaying obedience to the boss. There is a pronounced sense of hierarchy and people enjoying a high status reveal their power. Whereas societies that rank low on power distance play down hierarchy and stress equality. There is no focus on titles and positions and leaders do not exhibit their skills obviously. Masculinity vs. Femininity is about relationship between gender and work roles. In male-dominated cultures sex roles are sharply differentiated. There is a clear role distribution which suggests itself in the fact that men are superior to women and men normally occupy management positions. Hence, the focus is on achievement, competition and ‘fighting’. However, in female oriented cultures genders are less distinguished and both genders play the same role. These cultures stress care, compromise and harmony. The fourth dimension called Uncertainty Avoidance aims at the way people try to get a grip on unpredictable and ambiguous situations. People living in a culture with strong uncertainty avoidance have fear of the unknown. Therefore elaborate rules, regulations, and clear orders exist. Cultures with a low uncertainty avoidance tolerate differences, unanticipated situations and are more open toward change. People make decisions which are subject to individual discretion and which are based on more universal rules. Long-Term Orientation vs. Short-Term Orientation relate to the choice between future and present virtue. In other words, Hofstede’s last dimension can be seen as an indicator for a society’s attitude toward time and tradition. Values associated with Long-Term Orientation are thrift, filial piety and perseverance. Young people should sacrifice their pleasures of their life at their young age for the sake of the benefit of their future. Values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one’s ‘face’. Consequently, this orientation is more oriented toward the past and the present. 3 2. 2. Trompenaars’ Dimensions Trompenaars explored how people relate in private, business life and moral conflicts. Afterwards he extracted seven dimensions. The first dimension Universalism vs. Particularism can be prescribed with key words as rules vs. elationships. In universalistic cultures people are supposed to strictly adhere to standards and rules. Consequently, infringing the right (regardless of the reason) is equivalent to undermining morals and should be punished. There are no exceptions. In particularistic societies obligations to the closer surrounding enjoy highest priority. Protecting your members (e. g. fam ily, friends) is more important than observing law. In case of Collectivism vs. Individualism the question arises if people attribute more importance to oneself or to the group. In individualistic cultures there is a clear distinction of individuals within a group. It is common that personal achievement is rewarded and people are motivated to improve their individual performance in order to be promoted. Representatives of a group or a company are allowed to make binding decisions on their own. In collectivistic cultures people identify themselves with the group. High achievement of one person is put down to the good performance of the entire group and thus success is shared within the group. Only the whole team or at least a certain number of members make decisions and take responsibility. You read "Trompenaars vs. Hofstede" in category "Essay examples" The dimension Neutral vs. Affective deals with the range of expressed feelings. Neutral societies avoid to demonstrate feelings and strong gestures and hence try to display controlled behavior. If someone reveals anger or aggression this behavior is tantamount to unprofessionalism. Discussions are lead on a factual level. However, in affective cultures expression of feelings either verbally or nonverbally is normal. People expect direct emotional answers and appreciate vital and animated expressions. In the fourth place, Diffuse vs. Specific relates to the strategies and approaches for getting to know each other. People living in a specific/low context culture pursue a purpose in relating with another person, thus prefer direct and to the point communication. People clearly distinguish between private and business life e. g. titles are used in the job world not in private life. As the private sphere is relatively small only few people take part in one’s private life. In diffuse/high context cultures every life space permeates all others which means that everything is connected to everything. Even employers can take an active part of the worker’s private life. Achievement vs. Ascription refers to the accord of status. Achieved status is equivalent to success because of taking action. Managers are of different age and gender as they have reached the position due to performance, knowledge and skills. Ascribed status represents the opposite side. High status does not have to be justified. It is rather independent of task or specific function. Often external factors like age, gender, connections, education and family background decide on the status. The sixth dimension Sequential vs. Synchronic deals with time management. In synchronic cultures the emphasis is on the number of activities taking place in parallel. People place great value on the targets and not on the way and sequence an objective will be reached. Consequently, deadlines are untypical as the schedule is open for unplanned incidents. In general, relationship is more important than tight schedules. In sequential societies events which are often slated in a plan pass step by step. Tight order, punctuality and deadlines are of paramount importance. As a result, people are unable to act in turbulent environments and dislike unanticipated situations. Relationships serve as instruments and thus are inferior to schedules. 4 Last but not least the dimension Internal Control vs. External Control is about human’s relation to nature. This can be transcended to human’s relation to an organization, government and the market. In internal controlled cultures people have the conviction to be able to control their environment even if they have to use aggressiveness. Nature is equivalent to a complex machine which can be controlled if someone could develop an expertise. Therefore success and failure should be put down to the individual endeavors rather than to environment and general-set up. However, in external controlled societies environment is taken more into account because people consider themselves to be a part of nature. As external forces can strongly influence one’s life people try to be in harmony with their environment. They adapt to their surroundings, e. g. to customers, to their colleagues or they react flexibly to market forces. Afterwards they try to react in an appropriate way. 3. Analogies or identities of the cultural dimensions Trompenaars and Hofstede filtered out the same dimension Individualism vs. Collectivism. These ideologies are the platform for political and economic systems. China is a textbook example for a collectivistic country whereas the United States represent an individualistic country. In China ‘we’ occupies center stage and members of a group experience improvement of their life by taking care of each other and by maintaining harmony. Consequently, pay-for-performance of a single person is rejected in collectivistic cultures. Bonus payment to one person does not reflect the fact that the whole group contributes to success of each single group member. Reward of a single person would only destroy harmony within the group and would demotivate essential teamwork. However, in the US people rather concentrate on their own life. Each person takes the responsibility to improve one’s situation by working hard on one’s own. Bonus payment stimulates the propensity to perform better and to stand out against workmates. Trompenaars dimension Universalism vs. Particularism goes hand in hand with Individualism vs. Collectivism. Americans being universalists and individualists emphasize equal treatment of everyone according to the law. E. g. If the best friend killed someone the universalist giving testimony would tell the truth in order to adhere to the law. The relationship to the friend would be neglected just to restore order as killing someone is immoral. As opposed to this, in China relationship is superior to law. The Chinese friend would lie to protect the friend who is in real trouble. The dimension Specific vs. Diffuse reveals some analogies with regard to the dimension Individualism vs. Collectivism. In specific countries or low context countries, e. g. America, business is done even if both parties haven’t established a relationship. Long communication is not necessary as the contract contains every little detail. This demonstrates that the emphasis is put on the task and on the achievement of the individual representing the company rather than on the relationship. Whereas in China companies would only strike a deal if a relationship was established successfully. In diffuse/high context cultures privacy sphere is only marginal and confidence decides on business operation. In other words, relationship and group orientedness is superior to task. 5 Individualism vs. Collectivism also correlates with Short-Term-orientation/Long-Termorientation. In East-Asian countries, e. g. China, Hong Kong, Taiwan the relationship between workers and management in a company is vital. This fact can be put down to Confucianism and the concept of reciprocal obligation. Bosses protect their workers and offer them a life-time employment. In return, their subordinates are loyal and respectful. Everyone (the whole group) is responsible to contribute to the long-lasting success in the company. In Western countries, e. g. the United States people are not keen on life-time employment. They want to change their job if they have an opportunity for a better career. Managers siphon off high bonus (short term) payments if the company’s profits and numbers in the last business year are excellent. As a result, managers are not interested in sustainability but in short-term profit. Individualism vs. Collectivism influences Trompenaars dimension Internal Control/External Control. The political system collectivism goes hand in hand with the economic system command economy. Even if China is a mixed economy government controls life of its citizens and of each individual e. g. via censorship. Consequently, Chinese people are externalistic as government (metaphor for environment) actively shapes their lives and people haven’t had control over government. Contrary to this, Germans living in individualism and market economy are internalistic. Companies can function as lobbyists and can actively influence governmental activities. Another two dimensions which have similarities are Hofstede’s Power Distance and Trompenaars Achievement vs. Ascription. The Indian Caste system reflects High Power Distance. If someone was born into the lowest group (Shudra) of the caste system (let alone the Untouchables) this person will always belong to this caste. Shudras have to accept the fact that they will always be inferior to people belonging to the upper castes. The caste determines the quality of life including the profession. A Brahmin, belonging to the highest caste, will always be respected and occupies the most powerful standing in society. This fact equates with Ascription as the Indian cadre originates from a renowned family background and has normally reached a decent age. Subordinates are loyal and respectful as they can only survive with the help of the upper castes and thus are highly dependent on them. Hence, superiors dictate the conditions and take responsibility for everything. The hierarchy within the caste system is reflected in a steep hierarchy in companies and institutions. Germany being a Low Power Distance country can be considered as the opposite. Family background could help to find a job but doesn’t decide on the career track of a person. If someone distinguishes oneself from the mass because of excellent performance and great talent this person will probably climb up the career ladder. This example can be clearly associated with Trompenaars dimension achievement. It is also very important to remark that both staff and bosses should be treated almost equally as the roles and positions can be changed very fast due to achievement. Even if some analogies match with my example this doesn’t mean that the two dimensions compared have similarities in all areas and situations. I extracted some points of intersection. 6 4. Differences of the dimensions The other dimensions not mentioned in the prior passage may sometimes have minor similarities which are notwithstanding outweighed by the differences of their meanings. I deliberately turned my back on the analogies between the dimensions of the same author. Geert Hofstede concentrated on the subject how cultural differences influence organization, management and relationship between people whereas Trompenaars shed some light on people’s relationship to time, nature and other human beings. Trompenaars neglected the topic gender which deals with a substantial question how the roles in the family are defined. This also manifests itself in the management structure of a company. In female oriented cultures, e. g. n Scandinavian countries men go on parental leave and women equally occupy leading positions. Whereas in a male- oriented culture like Germany a dog-eats-dog society has been generated, in Norway a woman striving for her own benefit and thus threatening cooperation and harmony will be looked down upon. Trompenaars did not deal with search for Truth. Hofstede’s Uncertainty Avoidance indicates how people try to grapple with unstruct ured situations. United States e. g. ranking low on Uncertainty Avoidance are not risk averse. The current financial crisis was triggered by hazardous behavior. American banks granted credits to people who couldn’t afford them. Germany ranking high on the uncertainty avoidance is often criticized for its bureaucracy. Elaborate rules and regulations should avoid uncertainty, can however cause a lot of paper work. One can also find some topics Hofstede did not have a focus on. Firstly, Hofstede did not consider the range of feelings expressed (neutral vs. emotional) which of course determine communication and behavior of people. Secondly, Hofstede did not describe the dimension dealing with range of involvement (diffuse vs. specific). Last but not least Hofstede did not mention explicitly time management (sequential vs. synchronic). 5. Advantages and Risks seeing the world and cultures with dimensions It is safe to say that dimensions can help people (that have never been to a certain country) to become more sensitive for intercultural understanding. Not until people are aware of idiosyncrasies of their own culture they can easier get to know other cultures. If someone (e. g. an expatriate) is undetermined in which country to go dimensions can help to get a first impression and contain the number of possible destinations depending on the criteria. After having chosen a country the expatriate should acquire theoretical knowledge about important symbols, rituals and common manners. Being abroad he/she can try to apply dimensions practically especially during the first days in the new surrounding as the person does not know how to behave properly. Most notably at the first meeting people need a first point of orientation to avoid big no go’s. 7 However, getting to know other cultures means learning by doing and trial by error. According to the iceberg model visible and expected occurrences account for only 10%. Consequently, 90% of our experiences with other cultures happen unsuspectedly. That’s why we should not overestimate and read too much into dimensions. A risk which arises when applying dimensions is to misunderstand and misuse them. The peculiarity of a dimension is highly dependent on the situation and on the counterpart’s personality. Dimensions do not reflect individual cultural preferences but convey an average and general behavior of the population living in a culture. An adverse effect is also that stereotypes are created and reinforced. Another problem point is that Hofstede carried out his studies (which serve as basis for the dimensions) at the end of the 60s. These studies are only a snapshot and did not take into consideration that culture evolves over time. Especially changes in economic or political environment, e. g. the demise of Communism in Eastern Europe or globalization, heavily affect transformation of cultures. Apart from that, both authors assumed that there is a one-to-one correspondence between culture and nation state which is sometimes not the case. In some countries, e. g. Canada, more than one culture can be found. There are even major differences of behavior between regions of a country. 6. Effects on practice operation Before going abroad expatriates should grasp how much preparation is required to cope with the difference between the own and the foreign culture. Even if an expatriate cannot prepare for the unexpected situations abroad preparation should lead to willingness of flexibility and adaption while interacting with foreigners. However, an expatriate should know the future task in the foreign country which indicates the role and needed appearance of the expatriate. This depends on the target and the way of the company how to expand internationally. If a company opts for setting-up a new subsidiary abroad, the so called greenfield start, optimally a group of expatriates is sent to a foreign country. The task of the expatriates is to find out whether the strategy and the culture of the company can be reconciled with the foreign culture. They experience intensively foreign norms and values and try to recruit suitable locals in order to build up the new plant together. The difficulty is to decide if it is worthwile to establish a company in this country. It is evident that this decision should not be made on the basis of the dimensions. Secondly, the foreign members should be conscious of the fact that national values and norms have to be brought in line with the native corporate culture. This will only happen if the expatriates and the foreign workers could successfully build confidence so that the foreigners feel also loyal to a foreign company. My initial example with Wal-Mart showed that the company failed to apply a right strategy. If a company plans an acquisition with a foreign country expatriates should first analyze the business culture of the own and the future company. Moreover, expatriates should consider also the foreign culture! There is a high potential of conflicts as normally the managers of the foreign company are made redundant and are superseded by expatriates. The question is if those expatriates will be accepted by the national workers and if they are capable of doing successfully business in the foreign surrounding. 8 Irrespective of the distinct possibilities to enter a foreign market intercultural sensitivity (both of the own and the foreign country) is the be-all and end-all. Therefore it is of paramount importance to go abroad as prepared and unprejudiced as possible. If expatriates succeed internalizing these facts they can close the distance gap between two companies operating in distinct countries. 7. Personal meaning and consequences of the dimensions My next job abroad will be as an intern not as an expatriate. That’s why I will refer to my internship in China. Generally speaking it would be easier for me to do my internship in countries where I can speak the language (German, English, French, Polish, Spanish). It is obvious that mainly Western countries are involved (e. g. America, European countries). All of them embrace democracy and in large part stress individualism. The frame’ would be alike and I could concentrate on concept of time, privacy, and way of life. However, in countries were political and economic systems are at odds with democracy almost everything is different like in China. Dimensions confirm this statement. I deliberately chose a country which is unfamiliar to me as this poses a considerable challenge. The problem point is that I am permanently influenced by Western media. This leads to the fact that my subconsciousness would like to dictate that the opposite culture is different and thus ‘wrong’. I personally do not think that the other culture is ‘wrong’. I am more afraid of putting my foot in it in momentous situations. Firstly, I am used to sharing my experiences with others and of being in a group, but in a smaller one. The size of the group (especially the quantity of people on the street) will be a change. Secondly, I am used to voicing my opinion freely and saying ‘yes or no’ even in team work. This will not be possible anymore as I should not take someone’s face and indirectly the face of the group. I should get used to going around in circles particularly during discussions. Apart from that it is normal for me to solve problems when they arise. However, I have to adapt the fact that I should circumvent it. Ignoring these factors could lead to tensions which would have detrimental effects on the relationship between the staff and me. I am dependent on their explanation! Even if I think that in a special case the ‘German’ way of doing it would be more appropriate and efficient these thoughts should not prevail! My individual target and opinion should not be on top anymore! In general, I am a optimistic person and I like it to smile. In China people smile even if they are angry. It will be a challenge for me to estimate the feelings correctly and to deal with it. Also the perception of time and structure pose risks to me as I will certainly be confused if deadlines are not met and order is neglected. These are only few situations and points which could cause trouble and uncertainty. My examples reflect some of the dimensions, e. g. individualism vs. collectivism, diffuse vs. specific, uncertainty avoidance,†¦ Despite everything I look forward to my experience abroad and consider this seminar paper as a minor part of my preparation. 9 How to cite Trompenaars vs. Hofstede, Essay examples

Trompenaars vs. Hofstede Free Essays

string(67) " certain number of members make decisions and take responsibility\." Trompenaars vs. Hofstede 1. 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Trompenaars vs. Hofstede or any similar topic only for you Order Now Introduction †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2 Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede and Trompenaars †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Analogies or identities of the cultural dimensions †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 5 Differences of the dimensions †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 Advantages and Risks seeing the world and cultures with dimensions â € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Effects on practice operation †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 8 Personal meaning and consequences of the dimensions †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 9 2. 1. 2. 2. Hofstedes’ Dimensions†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 Trompenaars’ Dimensions †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4 1. Introduction Nowadays a lot of companies operate in a multitude of distinct countries. However, if we do a double take, it is evident that multinational enterprises and their strategies differ from country to country. If not, it might be the case that those companies will fail. For example Wal-Mart opted for entering the Japanese market. Unfortunately, they tried implement the American strategy in Japan. Americans were keen on bargain buys in huge amounts 24 hours a day. Whereas the discount strategy in the USA has been very successful, it had adverse effects in Japan. Japanese people equated low prices to low quality and thus didn’t want to buy at Wal-Mart. Moreover, Japanese weren’t used to the fact that a store was open 24 hours per day. Such misunderstandings cause huge trouble. For some situations we cannot prepare. However, it would have been important for WalMart to analyze the Japanese culture in depth before starting business there. If we look at everyday life it is safe to say that all people have the problem how to cope with people’s relationship to time, nature and other human beings. The solutions how to get a grip on these problems differ from culture to culture. Consequently, it is important to be aware of the cultural differences of each country. Trompenaars and Hofstede give some propositions how to classify cultures. 2 2. Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede and Trompenaars 2. 1. Hofstedes’ Dimensions Geert Hofstede filtered out 5 dimensions which indicate how people are influenced by their culture especially in the workplace. The first dimension refers to identity. The dimension Collectivism vs. individualism reflects the relationship between an individual and the group. In more individualistic societies the emphasis is put on freedom, personal achievement and individual identity. Consequently, ties in a group (e. g. he family, workgroup) are loose. People manifest a higher incentive for self-initiative and try to take care of themselves. In contrast, collectivistic cultures place great value on the common interest of a group, harmony between members and taking care of each other. There is a clear distinction between inand outsiders. If an outsider takes face of one group member the entire group feels offended and avoids contact with the troublemaker. Secondly, Power Distance deals with hierarchy and the degree of inequality between members of a society which is adopted as a natural state of affairs. In high power distance countries inequality in physical and intellectual capabilities is considered to be normal. Subordinates are in for displaying obedience to the boss. There is a pronounced sense of hierarchy and people enjoying a high status reveal their power. Whereas societies that rank low on power distance play down hierarchy and stress equality. There is no focus on titles and positions and leaders do not exhibit their skills obviously. Masculinity vs. Femininity is about relationship between gender and work roles. In male-dominated cultures sex roles are sharply differentiated. There is a clear role distribution which suggests itself in the fact that men are superior to women and men normally occupy management positions. Hence, the focus is on achievement, competition and ‘fighting’. However, in female oriented cultures genders are less distinguished and both genders play the same role. These cultures stress care, compromise and harmony. The fourth dimension called Uncertainty Avoidance aims at the way people try to get a grip on unpredictable and ambiguous situations. People living in a culture with strong uncertainty avoidance have fear of the unknown. Therefore elaborate rules, regulations, and clear orders exist. Cultures with a low uncertainty avoidance tolerate differences, unanticipated situations and are more open toward change. People make decisions which are subject to individual discretion and which are based on more universal rules. Long-Term Orientation vs. Short-Term Orientation relate to the choice between future and present virtue. In other words, Hofstede’s last dimension can be seen as an indicator for a society’s attitude toward time and tradition. Values associated with Long-Term Orientation are thrift, filial piety and perseverance. Young people should sacrifice their pleasures of their life at their young age for the sake of the benefit of their future. Values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one’s ‘face’. Consequently, this orientation is more oriented toward the past and the present. 3 2. 2. Trompenaars’ Dimensions Trompenaars explored how people relate in private, business life and moral conflicts. Afterwards he extracted seven dimensions. The first dimension Universalism vs. Particularism can be prescribed with key words as rules vs. elationships. In universalistic cultures people are supposed to strictly adhere to standards and rules. Consequently, infringing the right (regardless of the reason) is equivalent to undermining morals and should be punished. There are no exceptions. In particularistic societies obligations to the closer surrounding enjoy highest priority. Protecting your members (e. g. fam ily, friends) is more important than observing law. In case of Collectivism vs. Individualism the question arises if people attribute more importance to oneself or to the group. In individualistic cultures there is a clear distinction of individuals within a group. It is common that personal achievement is rewarded and people are motivated to improve their individual performance in order to be promoted. Representatives of a group or a company are allowed to make binding decisions on their own. In collectivistic cultures people identify themselves with the group. High achievement of one person is put down to the good performance of the entire group and thus success is shared within the group. Only the whole team or at least a certain number of members make decisions and take responsibility. You read "Trompenaars vs. Hofstede" in category "Essay examples" The dimension Neutral vs. Affective deals with the range of expressed feelings. Neutral societies avoid to demonstrate feelings and strong gestures and hence try to display controlled behavior. If someone reveals anger or aggression this behavior is tantamount to unprofessionalism. Discussions are lead on a factual level. However, in affective cultures expression of feelings either verbally or nonverbally is normal. People expect direct emotional answers and appreciate vital and animated expressions. In the fourth place, Diffuse vs. Specific relates to the strategies and approaches for getting to know each other. People living in a specific/low context culture pursue a purpose in relating with another person, thus prefer direct and to the point communication. People clearly distinguish between private and business life e. g. titles are used in the job world not in private life. As the private sphere is relatively small only few people take part in one’s private life. In diffuse/high context cultures every life space permeates all others which means that everything is connected to everything. Even employers can take an active part of the worker’s private life. Achievement vs. Ascription refers to the accord of status. Achieved status is equivalent to success because of taking action. Managers are of different age and gender as they have reached the position due to performance, knowledge and skills. Ascribed status represents the opposite side. High status does not have to be justified. It is rather independent of task or specific function. Often external factors like age, gender, connections, education and family background decide on the status. The sixth dimension Sequential vs. Synchronic deals with time management. In synchronic cultures the emphasis is on the number of activities taking place in parallel. People place great value on the targets and not on the way and sequence an objective will be reached. Consequently, deadlines are untypical as the schedule is open for unplanned incidents. In general, relationship is more important than tight schedules. In sequential societies events which are often slated in a plan pass step by step. Tight order, punctuality and deadlines are of paramount importance. As a result, people are unable to act in turbulent environments and dislike unanticipated situations. Relationships serve as instruments and thus are inferior to schedules. 4 Last but not least the dimension Internal Control vs. External Control is about human’s relation to nature. This can be transcended to human’s relation to an organization, government and the market. In internal controlled cultures people have the conviction to be able to control their environment even if they have to use aggressiveness. Nature is equivalent to a complex machine which can be controlled if someone could develop an expertise. Therefore success and failure should be put down to the individual endeavors rather than to environment and general-set up. However, in external controlled societies environment is taken more into account because people consider themselves to be a part of nature. As external forces can strongly influence one’s life people try to be in harmony with their environment. They adapt to their surroundings, e. g. to customers, to their colleagues or they react flexibly to market forces. Afterwards they try to react in an appropriate way. 3. Analogies or identities of the cultural dimensions Trompenaars and Hofstede filtered out the same dimension Individualism vs. Collectivism. These ideologies are the platform for political and economic systems. China is a textbook example for a collectivistic country whereas the United States represent an individualistic country. In China ‘we’ occupies center stage and members of a group experience improvement of their life by taking care of each other and by maintaining harmony. Consequently, pay-for-performance of a single person is rejected in collectivistic cultures. Bonus payment to one person does not reflect the fact that the whole group contributes to success of each single group member. Reward of a single person would only destroy harmony within the group and would demotivate essential teamwork. However, in the US people rather concentrate on their own life. Each person takes the responsibility to improve one’s situation by working hard on one’s own. Bonus payment stimulates the propensity to perform better and to stand out against workmates. Trompenaars dimension Universalism vs. Particularism goes hand in hand with Individualism vs. Collectivism. Americans being universalists and individualists emphasize equal treatment of everyone according to the law. E. g. If the best friend killed someone the universalist giving testimony would tell the truth in order to adhere to the law. The relationship to the friend would be neglected just to restore order as killing someone is immoral. As opposed to this, in China relationship is superior to law. The Chinese friend would lie to protect the friend who is in real trouble. The dimension Specific vs. Diffuse reveals some analogies with regard to the dimension Individualism vs. Collectivism. In specific countries or low context countries, e. g. America, business is done even if both parties haven’t established a relationship. Long communication is not necessary as the contract contains every little detail. This demonstrates that the emphasis is put on the task and on the achievement of the individual representing the company rather than on the relationship. Whereas in China companies would only strike a deal if a relationship was established successfully. In diffuse/high context cultures privacy sphere is only marginal and confidence decides on business operation. In other words, relationship and group orientedness is superior to task. 5 Individualism vs. Collectivism also correlates with Short-Term-orientation/Long-Termorientation. In East-Asian countries, e. g. China, Hong Kong, Taiwan the relationship between workers and management in a company is vital. This fact can be put down to Confucianism and the concept of reciprocal obligation. Bosses protect their workers and offer them a life-time employment. In return, their subordinates are loyal and respectful. Everyone (the whole group) is responsible to contribute to the long-lasting success in the company. In Western countries, e. g. the United States people are not keen on life-time employment. They want to change their job if they have an opportunity for a better career. Managers siphon off high bonus (short term) payments if the company’s profits and numbers in the last business year are excellent. As a result, managers are not interested in sustainability but in short-term profit. Individualism vs. Collectivism influences Trompenaars dimension Internal Control/External Control. The political system collectivism goes hand in hand with the economic system command economy. Even if China is a mixed economy government controls life of its citizens and of each individual e. g. via censorship. Consequently, Chinese people are externalistic as government (metaphor for environment) actively shapes their lives and people haven’t had control over government. Contrary to this, Germans living in individualism and market economy are internalistic. Companies can function as lobbyists and can actively influence governmental activities. Another two dimensions which have similarities are Hofstede’s Power Distance and Trompenaars Achievement vs. Ascription. The Indian Caste system reflects High Power Distance. If someone was born into the lowest group (Shudra) of the caste system (let alone the Untouchables) this person will always belong to this caste. Shudras have to accept the fact that they will always be inferior to people belonging to the upper castes. The caste determines the quality of life including the profession. A Brahmin, belonging to the highest caste, will always be respected and occupies the most powerful standing in society. This fact equates with Ascription as the Indian cadre originates from a renowned family background and has normally reached a decent age. Subordinates are loyal and respectful as they can only survive with the help of the upper castes and thus are highly dependent on them. Hence, superiors dictate the conditions and take responsibility for everything. The hierarchy within the caste system is reflected in a steep hierarchy in companies and institutions. Germany being a Low Power Distance country can be considered as the opposite. Family background could help to find a job but doesn’t decide on the career track of a person. If someone distinguishes oneself from the mass because of excellent performance and great talent this person will probably climb up the career ladder. This example can be clearly associated with Trompenaars dimension achievement. It is also very important to remark that both staff and bosses should be treated almost equally as the roles and positions can be changed very fast due to achievement. Even if some analogies match with my example this doesn’t mean that the two dimensions compared have similarities in all areas and situations. I extracted some points of intersection. 6 4. Differences of the dimensions The other dimensions not mentioned in the prior passage may sometimes have minor similarities which are notwithstanding outweighed by the differences of their meanings. I deliberately turned my back on the analogies between the dimensions of the same author. Geert Hofstede concentrated on the subject how cultural differences influence organization, management and relationship between people whereas Trompenaars shed some light on people’s relationship to time, nature and other human beings. Trompenaars neglected the topic gender which deals with a substantial question how the roles in the family are defined. This also manifests itself in the management structure of a company. In female oriented cultures, e. g. n Scandinavian countries men go on parental leave and women equally occupy leading positions. Whereas in a male- oriented culture like Germany a dog-eats-dog society has been generated, in Norway a woman striving for her own benefit and thus threatening cooperation and harmony will be looked down upon. Trompenaars did not deal with search for Truth. Hofstede’s Uncertainty Avoidance indicates how people try to grapple with unstruct ured situations. United States e. g. ranking low on Uncertainty Avoidance are not risk averse. The current financial crisis was triggered by hazardous behavior. American banks granted credits to people who couldn’t afford them. Germany ranking high on the uncertainty avoidance is often criticized for its bureaucracy. Elaborate rules and regulations should avoid uncertainty, can however cause a lot of paper work. One can also find some topics Hofstede did not have a focus on. Firstly, Hofstede did not consider the range of feelings expressed (neutral vs. emotional) which of course determine communication and behavior of people. Secondly, Hofstede did not describe the dimension dealing with range of involvement (diffuse vs. specific). Last but not least Hofstede did not mention explicitly time management (sequential vs. synchronic). 5. Advantages and Risks seeing the world and cultures with dimensions It is safe to say that dimensions can help people (that have never been to a certain country) to become more sensitive for intercultural understanding. Not until people are aware of idiosyncrasies of their own culture they can easier get to know other cultures. If someone (e. g. an expatriate) is undetermined in which country to go dimensions can help to get a first impression and contain the number of possible destinations depending on the criteria. After having chosen a country the expatriate should acquire theoretical knowledge about important symbols, rituals and common manners. Being abroad he/she can try to apply dimensions practically especially during the first days in the new surrounding as the person does not know how to behave properly. Most notably at the first meeting people need a first point of orientation to avoid big no go’s. 7 However, getting to know other cultures means learning by doing and trial by error. According to the iceberg model visible and expected occurrences account for only 10%. Consequently, 90% of our experiences with other cultures happen unsuspectedly. That’s why we should not overestimate and read too much into dimensions. A risk which arises when applying dimensions is to misunderstand and misuse them. The peculiarity of a dimension is highly dependent on the situation and on the counterpart’s personality. Dimensions do not reflect individual cultural preferences but convey an average and general behavior of the population living in a culture. An adverse effect is also that stereotypes are created and reinforced. Another problem point is that Hofstede carried out his studies (which serve as basis for the dimensions) at the end of the 60s. These studies are only a snapshot and did not take into consideration that culture evolves over time. Especially changes in economic or political environment, e. g. the demise of Communism in Eastern Europe or globalization, heavily affect transformation of cultures. Apart from that, both authors assumed that there is a one-to-one correspondence between culture and nation state which is sometimes not the case. In some countries, e. g. Canada, more than one culture can be found. There are even major differences of behavior between regions of a country. 6. Effects on practice operation Before going abroad expatriates should grasp how much preparation is required to cope with the difference between the own and the foreign culture. Even if an expatriate cannot prepare for the unexpected situations abroad preparation should lead to willingness of flexibility and adaption while interacting with foreigners. However, an expatriate should know the future task in the foreign country which indicates the role and needed appearance of the expatriate. This depends on the target and the way of the company how to expand internationally. If a company opts for setting-up a new subsidiary abroad, the so called greenfield start, optimally a group of expatriates is sent to a foreign country. The task of the expatriates is to find out whether the strategy and the culture of the company can be reconciled with the foreign culture. They experience intensively foreign norms and values and try to recruit suitable locals in order to build up the new plant together. The difficulty is to decide if it is worthwile to establish a company in this country. It is evident that this decision should not be made on the basis of the dimensions. Secondly, the foreign members should be conscious of the fact that national values and norms have to be brought in line with the native corporate culture. This will only happen if the expatriates and the foreign workers could successfully build confidence so that the foreigners feel also loyal to a foreign company. My initial example with Wal-Mart showed that the company failed to apply a right strategy. If a company plans an acquisition with a foreign country expatriates should first analyze the business culture of the own and the future company. Moreover, expatriates should consider also the foreign culture! There is a high potential of conflicts as normally the managers of the foreign company are made redundant and are superseded by expatriates. The question is if those expatriates will be accepted by the national workers and if they are capable of doing successfully business in the foreign surrounding. 8 Irrespective of the distinct possibilities to enter a foreign market intercultural sensitivity (both of the own and the foreign country) is the be-all and end-all. Therefore it is of paramount importance to go abroad as prepared and unprejudiced as possible. If expatriates succeed internalizing these facts they can close the distance gap between two companies operating in distinct countries. 7. Personal meaning and consequences of the dimensions My next job abroad will be as an intern not as an expatriate. That’s why I will refer to my internship in China. Generally speaking it would be easier for me to do my internship in countries where I can speak the language (German, English, French, Polish, Spanish). It is obvious that mainly Western countries are involved (e. g. America, European countries). All of them embrace democracy and in large part stress individualism. The frame’ would be alike and I could concentrate on concept of time, privacy, and way of life. However, in countries were political and economic systems are at odds with democracy almost everything is different like in China. Dimensions confirm this statement. I deliberately chose a country which is unfamiliar to me as this poses a considerable challenge. The problem point is that I am permanently influenced by Western media. This leads to the fact that my subconsciousness would like to dictate that the opposite culture is different and thus ‘wrong’. I personally do not think that the other culture is ‘wrong’. I am more afraid of putting my foot in it in momentous situations. Firstly, I am used to sharing my experiences with others and of being in a group, but in a smaller one. The size of the group (especially the quantity of people on the street) will be a change. Secondly, I am used to voicing my opinion freely and saying ‘yes or no’ even in team work. This will not be possible anymore as I should not take someone’s face and indirectly the face of the group. I should get used to going around in circles particularly during discussions. Apart from that it is normal for me to solve problems when they arise. However, I have to adapt the fact that I should circumvent it. Ignoring these factors could lead to tensions which would have detrimental effects on the relationship between the staff and me. I am dependent on their explanation! Even if I think that in a special case the ‘German’ way of doing it would be more appropriate and efficient these thoughts should not prevail! My individual target and opinion should not be on top anymore! In general, I am a optimistic person and I like it to smile. In China people smile even if they are angry. It will be a challenge for me to estimate the feelings correctly and to deal with it. Also the perception of time and structure pose risks to me as I will certainly be confused if deadlines are not met and order is neglected. These are only few situations and points which could cause trouble and uncertainty. My examples reflect some of the dimensions, e. g. individualism vs. collectivism, diffuse vs. specific, uncertainty avoidance,†¦ Despite everything I look forward to my experience abroad and consider this seminar paper as a minor part of my preparation. 9 How to cite Trompenaars vs. Hofstede, Essay examples

Cross cultural management definitions free essay sample

Heterogeneity – we are not all the same; groups within society differ. Similarity and Difference – many people differ from me culturally. Equifinality – many culturally distinct way of lining life, working and reaching one’s goal exists Cultural Contingency – many different and equally good ways can be used to reach the same goal. Cultural self-awareness an understanding of their own cultural assumptions and patterns of behavior; Cross-cultural awareness – an understanding of the others cultures’ assumptions and patterns of behavior. Roman dictum â€Å"knowledge is power†: in knowing yourself you gain power over your perceptions and reactions; you can control your own behavior and your reactions to others’ behavior. 3. Organizational Culture vs. National Culture Many managers believe that organizational culture moderates or erases the influence of national culture; Assume that employees working for the same organization – even if they come from different countries – will behave similarly. False supposition; employees and managers bring their cultural background and ethnicity to the workplace. Studies of Laurent and Geert Hofstede (research documents a wide range of cultural differences in work related values, attitudes) who pronounced cultural differences among employees from all around the world working in multinational companies. When working for multinational companies, German become more German, Americans more American and so on. 4. Fatalism/ Choice Fatalism is the concept that everything that happens to us is unavoidable, either because it is all predetermined by fate or because it is simply beyond us to control. Free will (choice) is the belief that human beings can make their own choices and determine their own destinies. In a way, a belief in Murphys Law can help these two diametrically opposed concepts to coexist. Murphy reminds us that were likely to mess up a lot of the time, but it also helps us see that were not in complete control of our lives. For example, if it seems like you always get stuck in the slowest lane of traffic, Murphys Law can help you see that it is a combination of your own choices (choosing what time of day to drive, what road to take, which lane to enter) and forces beyond your control (the traffic itself) that cause your delay. 5. Dominance vs. Harmony Dominance = cultural dominance (in business) – continuing to use approaches you use at home; used when managers believe that their way is the only right way, especially in situations involving ethical decisions. Dominant over nature (as North Americans) or in harmony with it (Chinese people with feng shui or â€Å"wind water† – there is no real separation between people and their natural environment, they leave in peace with it) Dominant cultures (America) – approach to agriculture – they use pesticides, fertilizers and genetically modified seeds to increase crop yields; other ex: astronauts’ conquers the space, biotechnology and genetic engineering to alter the nature of life itself. Harmony – approach to agriculture – plant the â€Å"right† crops in the â€Å"right† places at the â€Å"right† time of the year in order to maintain the soil in good conditions. When Sir Edmund Hillary reached the top of the Everest: Dominance oriented press : â€Å"Men conquers mountain† Harmony-oriented press – â€Å"Man befriends mountains† 6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Parochialism Parochialism: view the world solely through one’s own eyes and perspective; a person with parochial perspective neither recognizes other people’s different ways of living and working, nor appreciates that such differences can offer significant opportunities or creates serious consequences. Advantages: As example, America has a large domestic market, so that the global business expertise is unnecessary; English will continue to be a language of international business; Disadvantages: No understanding on how to manage in an international environment; As an example, Americans think about themselves that they do not need to learn other language or to go to other country to succeed in business; No efficiency in working with other cultures or in a multicultural environment; Cultural misunderstandings; 7. Conservatism vs. Liberalism Liberal cultures believe in government action to achieve equal opportunity and equality for all. It is the duty of the government to alleviate social ills and to protect civil liberties and individual and human rights. Believe the role of the government should be to guarantee that no one is in need. Liberal policies generally emphasize the need for the government to solve problems. Conservative cultures believe in personal responsibility, limited government, free markets, individual liberty, traditional American values and a strong national defense. Believe the role of government should be to provide people the freedom necessary to pursue their own goals. Conservative policies generally emphasize empowerment of the individual to solve problems. 8. Substitutable Values/ Unique Values Presented in Metaphysics of Morals written by Immanuel Kant, 9. Career Anchors According to Edgar Schein, he has identified eight themes and has shown that people will have prioritized preferences for these. People tend to stay anchored in one area and their career will echo this in many ways. 1. Technical/functional competence – this kind of person likes being good at smth and will work to become an expert. 2. General Managerial competence – persons who like problem-solving and dealing with people; 3. Autonomy/Independence – people who have a primary need to work under their own rules; avoid standards and prefer to work alone; 4. Security/ Stability – people who seek stability and security; avoid risks; 5. Entrepreneurial Creativity – people who like to invent things, to be creative and run their own businesses; they easily get bored; 6. Service/Dedication to cause – how people can help other people by using their talents; 7. Pure Challenge – seek constant stimulation and difficult problems; change job when get bored; 8. Lifestyle 10. Kinesics Is the interpretation of body language such as facial expressions and gestures — or, more formally, non-verbal behavior related to movement, either of any part of the body or the body as a whole. Ekman and Friesen (1969) in their seminal work on kinesics classify kinesics into five Categories: emblems, illustrators, affect displays, regulators and adapters: a) Emblems = are non-verbal messages that have a verbal counterpart. For example, the British sign for Victory (forefinger and middle finger erect) symbolizes the letter V, a sign for victory often seen painted onto house walls during WWII. However, the same movement may  symbolize the number two in the US and may be seen as insulting in Australia. b) Illustrators = are used to illustrate what is being said. In terms of business communication, the importance of illustrator’s usage is quite significant. For example, in some Asian cultures extensive use of illustrators are often interpreted as a lack of intelligence, whereas in Latin cultures the absence of illustrators is easily construed as a lack of interest. c) Active Displays = are body or facial movements that display a certain affective state, as example, emotions. d) Regulators = non-verbal signs that regulate, modulate and maintain the flow of speech during conversation. e) Adaptors = postural changes and other movements at a low level of awareness. 11. Proxemics Proxemics or the use of space has a great impact on the intercultural communications. The important aspect of proxemics is that areas very close to our body is usually reserved for people we are intimate with, whereas space further away from our body is open to persons one is less intimate with. However some differences can be seen when studying certain cultures. For example, persons from Latin cultures sit closer to each other as are people from Northern European cultures. The importance of proxemics in business communication is important for a number of reasons: through the distance that is chosen when communicating to one another, people express their degree of intimacy and trust towards that person. 12. Chronemics Chronemics – is the cross cultural concept of time. Edward Hall identified two systems used to refer to time and its influence on society: polychronic and monochronic. Polychronic used to describe the preference for doing several things at once (people-oriented; Italy, Brazil; flexible approach of time; no strict agenda) Monochronic refers to an individual’s preference to do their activities one by one (U.S. or Germany prefer promptness, careful planning and rigid commitment to plans; task-oriented) While doing business in other countries, you should consider the different perceptions of time people might have. Everyday global business activities such as scheduling meetings, participating in conference calls or planning a project can be affected by attitudes to time. 13. Cromatics 14. Elaborate Vs. Succinct Verbal Styles These verbal stylistic variations describe de quantity of talk in everyday conversations in different cultures. Elaborate Verbal Style = rich, expressive language, which uses a large number of adjectives describing a noun, exaggerations, idiomatic expressions, proverbs and metaphors. Used in Middle East cultures such as Iran, Egypt, Saudi-Arabia, which are moderate in Hofstede’s UAI dimension and are highcontext cultures. Succint Verbal Style = high context and high uncertainty avoidance cultures; explicit verbal communication does not contain all the information which is supposed to be transmitted; depends heavily on non-verbal aspect, so that verbal message is considered only a part of communication (due to high context cultures). Ex. : Japanese (have developed haragei or the â€Å"art of the belly† for meeting the minds without clear verbal interaction. 15. Cultural Representations of Good and Evil Cultures perceive differently the good and the evil. Americans see people as a mixture of good and evil, they believe in the possibility of improvement through change. Some other cultures see people as basically evil (Puritans orientation). Others see people as basically good (Utopian societies). Societies that consider people good tend to trust them a great deal, whereas societies that consider people evil tend to suspect and mistrust them. Ex: the study case from the book, in which a young Canadian was employed at a restaurant owned by a Bosnian. The owner let the young employee alone in a room where the money for the wages were deposited, in the situation in  which, the owner of the restaurant didn’t know any information about the new employee. 16. Advantages and Disadvantages of Team Diversity Advantages: multicultural teams have the potential to achieve higher productivity than homogeneous teams; more and better ideas; limited groupthink Disadvantages: multicultural teams have the risk of experiencing greater losses due to faulty process. attitudinal problems – dislike and mistrust between members (Indians look down when acknowledging authority). stereotyping communication problems – inaccuracy, misinterpretations and inefficiency stress (the French want to discuss principles and historical precedent while Americans focus on specific details of the immediate situation) decreased effectiveness;